By Wayne Du, On-Farm Food Safety Specialist, OMAF and MRA
Food safety programs are becoming a requirement of doing business in Ontario. The Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF) and the Ministry of Rural Affairs (MRA) are here to help you keep up to date on the latest food safety practices. An effective food safety program helps you meet your buyer requirements, expand your market opportunity and continue to keep Ontario’s food safe.
Cleaning and sanitizing are critical steps in ensuring the food you produce is safe. If done improperly food can be contaminated. All surfaces that may contact the food product directly or indirectly, such as utensils, knives, tables, cutting boards, conveyor belts, bins, hands, aprons, floors, walls and many others must be properly cleaned and sanitized. Cleaning and sanitizing are two different processes and achieve different outcomes, although the terms are often used interchangeably. Cleaning is a process to remove visible dirt, organic matters (e.g. organic soil), chemical residues and microorganisms from surfaces or objects. Cleaning doesn’t kill those microorganisms but only removes them or lower their numbers. Sanitizing is a process where clean surfaces or objects undergo a treatment that reduces or kills microorganisms to a safe level. Cleaning and sanitizing often go hand in hand. Sanitizing won’t work effectively without a thorough cleaning first.
Good cleaning and sanitizing practices start with the right cleaning and sanitizing products.
- Ensure products are approved for the intended use in Canada. Products used should remove dirt and kill microorganisms but not contaminate food. Ask your suppliers for approved and appropriate cleaning and sanitizing products, or refer to the “Reference Listing of Accepted Construction Materials and packaging materials and Non-Food Chemical Products” from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency www.inspection.gc.ca (Search> reference listing of accepted materials)
- Select the right product for the right job. Not all sanitizers work the same. Here are some examples.
Table 1. Examples of sanitizers for common equipment and surfaces
|Chemical||Advantages||Disadvantages||Rates for use (ppm)|
|Submerged in Solution||In spray bottle|
|Chlorine||Kill most microorganismsEffective at low temperature
|Corrode metal and weaken rubberUnstable at high temperature
Not effective with organic matters
|Quats (Quaternary Ammonium Compounds)||Non corrosiveResidual activity if not rinsed
Less affected by organic materials
|Ineffective for certain microorganismsInactivated by most detergents
May be inactivated by hard water
(May need final rinse–refer to label)
|Iodine||Kill most microorganismsLess affected by organic materials
Colour indicates activity
|May stain plastic and porous materialsIn activated above 49 ºC||25||20-50
- It is important to select the products that are safe for use on your surface or equipment. If the products cause the surface or equipment that is being cleaned and sanitized to deteriorate, it will be much more difficult to keep them clean. Choose products that are effective and get the job done, but cause no or minimum damage to your equipment or facility.
- Different surface materials have different reactions to different cleaners and sanitizers. For example, some products such as caustic alkaline or acidic cleaners may be effective in removing dirt and food residues but they can also be corrosive to softer metals such as aluminum, coppers or lower grades of steel. The best source for product use information is the manufacturer’s label.
Factors such as product unique attributes (e.g. odour and colour), storage and mixing requirements for water pH, water hardness and temperature, presence of organic matters, cost and even environmental impact should be considered when choosing the right product as these factors can also affect the effectiveness of the products and consequently food safety and quality.
For further information on effective cleaning and sanitizing procedures see http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/food/inspection/fruitveg/sanitation_guide/cs-guidebook.htm
Food safety is everyone’s responsibility. Make food safety training your priority! To attend one of our free online workshops on Cleaning and Sanitizing and other important food safety topics, visit us at: www.ontario.ca/foodsafety or call: 1-877-424-1300. Food safety practices keep agri-food businesses competitive, productive and sustainable.